Key message: There are 2,628 protected species on the territory of the Republic of Serbia
Assessment: The indicator describes the pressures on biodiversity and the consequences taking into account the lists of endangered and protected species at national and international level. There are 2,628 protected species in the territory of the Republic of Serbia, out of which 1,760 are strictly protected.
Fifty percent of protected species at national level are listed at annexes of certain conventions and EU directives (Bern and Bonn Convention, Habitats and Birds Directives). Other species (another 50%) are protected only at national level.
Indicator Name: Endangered and protected species
Institution/Author: Environmental Protection Agency/Slaviša Popović
Use and interpretation:
The indicator describes the pressures on biodiversity and the responses, according to the lists of endangered and protected species at national and international level. Serbian Environmental Protection Agency in its Annual Reports on Biodiversity Indicators and Annual Reports on State of the Environment of the Republic of Serbia; Reports to EEA and other international conventions; Institute for Nature Protection of the Republic of Serbia, Institute for Nature Protection of the Vojvodina Province and managers of the protected areas in their regular work elated to protection of endangered species.
Key question(s) which indicator helps to answer
The indicator helps to answer the question: What is the number of threatened and protected species? By these key question it is possible to observe percent (%) of protection and vulnerability of species
Use of indicator
Currently, 1,760 wild species of plants, animals and fungi are strictly protected, and 853 are protected by law in Serbia. Protection of species is regulated by Rulebook on the proclamation and protection of strictly protected and protected wild species of plants, animals and fungi (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No. 5/2010 and 47/2011, 32/2016). A special form of protection relates to the species that can be endangered due to exaggerated and uncontrolled collection from nature. Almost all mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles are under a protection regime. Also, a large number of insects (especially butterflies) and plants are under protection. Over 50% of strictly protected species are on the list of international Conventions and EU Directives, and the most of them are on the lists of the Bern and Bonn Convention and the Birds Directive list. Compared to 2010, changes occurred in 2011 and 15 species were removed from the list of the species which can be collected and used for commercial purposes. Currently, controlled use is allowed for 97 species.
Scale of appropriate use
Number of threatened species compared to the total number of species. Number of protected species compared to the total number of species.
Potential for aggregation:
Meaning of upward or downward trends (“good or bad”)
The periodicity of data collection: periodically in accordance with changes in IUCN categorisation of threats and changes in the lists of protected species at the international and national level.
Possible reasons for upward or downward trends:
The indicator is determined annually and is important for monitoring the state of the biodiversity in Serbia.
Implications for biodiversity management of change in the indicator:
The indicator is traditionally described in annual state of the environment reports in Serbia, and it is determined as biodiversity indicator, according to The Rulebook on the National list of environmental protection indicators (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No. 37/2011).
Units in which it is expressed:
In the annual reporting the units as number of threatened/protected species and percentages compared to the total number of species are used to express indicator.
Description of source data:
Institute for nature conservation of the Republic of Serbia
Institute for the nature conservation of the Vojvodina Province
The indicator is calculated by analysing the number of species listed on the following lists:
List of endangered species according to the IUCN 2004
Lists of protection according to international and national regulations.
2004 IUCN list of threatened species at European, regional and national level.
Most effective forms of presentation:
(graph types, maps, narratives, etc.-give examples where possible):
The best ways to present this indicator are tables and graphs as they provide opportunity to monitor progress regarding this indicator and to record trends observed.
Limits to usefulness and accuracy:
Updating the indicator:
Statistical data are updated annually.
Closely related indicators
Additional information and comments
So far, four Red Books have been published in the Republic of Serbia:
Red Book of plants 1 – extinct and endangered taxa (1990);
Red Book of butterflies (2003);
Red Book of Amphibians (2015);
The Red Book of Reptiles (2015).
It is assumed that in the territory of the Republic of Serbia there are about 1,000 engendered vascular plant species, according to the Preliminary Red List of flora of the Republic of Serbia (2002). The largest number of endangered plants in the Republic of Serbia belongs to the IUCN category of “rare plants”.
Table 1: Total number of species by taxa_endangered_and protected species
|GROUP||No. Of species in Europe||Number of species in Serbia||List of potentialy endangered species in Serbia||Rulebook on protected and strictly protected species||Habitat Directive||Bern Convention||Rulebook||Endemic, relict, rare species out of lists|
Table 2: Species protected by international agreements and listed on Natura2000 Directives
|Other species||Bern Convention||Bonn Convention||Habitats Directive||Birds Directive|